Cassini-Huygens-Interplanetary Automatic Station was created jointly by NASA, European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency.
The project involves 17 countries and the total cost of the project is $ 3.26 billion. The main purpose of the station was to study the Saturn planet, its rings and satellites. The two-part complex ( Cassini Orbital Station, Titan’s downloaded Huygens Automatic Station) is named in honor of two prominent scientists:
Giovanni Domenico Cassin is an Italian and French astronomer. He discovered a slit (Cassini slit) in the rings of Saturn in 1675.
Christiaan Huygens is the Netherlands astronomer, mathematician and mechanic. In 1655, he discovered Saturn”s Titan satellite and described the rings of Saturn.
Cassini-Huygens commenced on October 15, 1997 from Cape Canaveral in Florida (USA). The project, scheduled for 2008, was later extended until 2017.
According to http://www.esa.int, the station’s Saturn tour has gone through several stages. It was twice accelerated through Venus. Then, when we crossed the Earth, our planet accelerated its gravitational field. On December 30, 2000, that exercise was realized when it passed by Jupiter.
When the station passed by Jupiter, Cassini’ team checked Shapiro delay with greater precision (1/51000). This effect reflects the outcome of the theory of general relativity – shows the delay in electromagnetic signals in the strong gravitational field.
On July 1, 2004, as a result of the braking, it went to the orbit of the Saturn’s Titan satellite. On December 25, 2004, the Huygens bloc separated from the station and entered the atmosphere of the Titan planet on January 14, 2005 and sits on the surface of the planet.
In the atmosphere of the Titan, the landing took 2 hours 27 minutes. And then in about 72 minute, it transmitted all the measurements to Cassini. Cassini was playing here as a retranslator. The retransmission session ended with Cassini sanking in the horizon.
Cassini mission and the experiment of Huygens discovered Titan’s intense atmosphere.
It has been discovered that 95% of the atmosphere is nitrogen and the remainder is methane, cordage, and so on. The thickness of the titanium atmosphere is 400 km and its surface is 1.5 times more than the pressure on Earth. The surface of the Titan is covered with thick orange clouds. The temperature is about -170°C.
These were important discoveries of the Huygens mission:
1) As a result of atmospheric measurements, the temperature profile of the atmosphere is established. Western winds were captured at 430 km/h at a height of 120 km and the apparatus at a height of 60 km fell into a strong turbulence zone. Then downward, The speed of the wind is reduced. The speed changes from 7 km to the highway and ranges from 1-3.5 km/h. the apparatus is driven from the original point of 165.8 km.
2) The dimensions indicate that at a height of more than 40 km, the basis of the atmosphere is nitrogen. The existence of methane is very little. Downward, the concentration of nitrogen increases and increases by 5% to less than 7 km. scientists have claimed that Titan has a cryovolcano, considering that sun radiation has destroyed the molecules of the methane for millions of years.
3) The apparatus has discovered the argons in the atmosphere -36 and 38 and also the presence of krypton and xenon in the atmosphere. Argon -36/ nitrogen ratio is less than the million times Sun’s atmosphere shows that nitrogen has not been included in the atmosphere at the time of the formation of the Solar System. It has been incorporated in other ways with nitrogen-containing ingredients.
4) The radioactive decay period in the atmosphere of Titan is 1.3 million years old, with a rope -40layer of 0.05%, indicating the presence of cryvolcano on the planet.
5) The presence of Titan brown luminescence is explained by the presence of methane and hydrogen with sisanide-containing aerosols. Methane clouds are six to eight kilometers high.
6) From the atmospheric aerosol at 130-35 and 25-20 km altitudes, it has been discovered that their main constituent consists of nitrogen and carbon.
7) Several stereoscopic images of 350 photos on the surface of Titan. Where the flow of dried rivers flowing from time to time was discovered.
8) Scientists were interested in Titan’s lightning strikes. Recipients built on extreme low frequencies have been set to confirm Shuman Resonance. Signal recorded at 36 Hz despite no lightning incidents recorded.140-40 km of ionosphere transplantation was found to be 60 km maximum.
9) The landscape which Huygens saw was not recorded by Cassini radar. Titan’s surface does not reflect waves. The reflected signal comes from deeper layers. They consist of polluted ice, and this effect is called an “imaginary sand hill”.
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